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5WA Cardiff

On Severn's Banks

The Music of the Shires of Gloucester, Worcester, Salop and Somerset.
Relayed to Daventry Experimental

The Valley of the Severn, within a radius of thirty miles of the City of Gloucester, holds a unique position in this country's history, in that it has been the birth-place of many of the great English Musicians of the twentieth century. We may cite the following names-Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Hubert Parry, Sir Herbert Brewer, Dr. Basil Harwood, Gustav Holst, Vaughan Williams, Herbert Howells, nor must we forget the great musical historian, Sir Henry Hadow.

National Orchestra of Wales
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite
5WA Cardiff

A Celtic Programme

After St. Andrew's Day, St. David's Day and St. Patrick's Day have been celebrated on their respective anniversaries, we sometimes institute a movable feast day in honour of all the Celtic countries.

National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)

John Herbert Foulds, a native of Manchester, began his musical career as a member of the Halle Orchestra. Since leaving it, he has had considerable experience as conductor and concert organizer, holding such posts as Musical Director at the London Central Y.M.C.A., and conducting the University of London Musical Society. He has been a prolific composer, though comparatively few of his bigger works are as yet at all well known. The one which has hitherto made the greatest impression is his World Requiem, a choral piece en a very large scale, produced at the Albert Hall on Armistice Day, 1923. He has invented, or at any rate imported into English music, some quite new orchestral effects by the use of quarter tones, an innovation which presents difficulties no less to the performers than to the hearers. Here, however, he is in lighter vein, almost in holiday mood, turning as he has more than once done, to Celtic lore for inspiration. In this Suite he does achieve some resemblance to the Celtic muse as far as anyone may hope to do who is not himself a Gaol.

In these two settings of Folk Songs, Percy Grainger shows not only his keen interest in the old lore of the Motherland-he is a Colonial by birth-but the very deft hand which he has in arranging light-hearted and good-going tunes. The first is by now one of the best-known tunes in the world, thanks to its many enthusiastic arrangers. The second is made up of two traditional Irish Reel tunes-the one which gives the piece its name, and another called 'Temple Hill.'

One of the present-day Scottish composers who has a keen interest in the folk tunes of his native country-many of them tunes which would be rapidly disappearing from mankind's knowledge were it not for such enthusiasts-David Stephen is by no means unknown to listeners as a composer. Orchestral and chamber music, as well as songs, of his, have several times been broadcast, and he is known as the scholarly editor of one of the best editions of Scottish songs in existence.
All his work has been done in Scotland; he has held a number of posts as organist, choral conductor, and teacher, and for many years was much in request for organ recitals. In 1905 he became Director of the Music of the Carnegie Trust.
5WA Cardiff

An Orchestral Concert

Relayed from the Assembly Room, City Hall
National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerdorffa Genedlaethol Cymru)
Leader, Albert Voorsanger
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

One of the pioneers of modern orchestral composition, Berlioz is still regarded as holding a foremost place among the groat masters of the orchestra. In his own day-he was born in 1803 and died in 1869-he found himself, as pioneers are apt to do, in conflict with most of the accepted traditions, and his new ideas, long ago accepted as of real worth, were hurled at his colleagues with something of the same violence and extravagance which can often be hoard in his own music. In remembering that, and the rather wild eccentricity of a good deal of his career, the present age is apt to forget that his music holds much that is really beautiful, and sometimes truly impressive.
The Overture 'Le Carnaval Romain' is modest and straightforward as compared with many of his less-known works. Its material is mainly taken from his Opera 'Benvenuto Cellini,' and the scene in the second act of that Opera, which depicts the Carnival, gives the Overture its name.
It begins with a very lively section taken from that scene, in a tarantelle rhythm which hurries along with great speed.
A slower movement follows, with a beautiful tune played by the English horn; it comes from the Love Duet in the first act of the Opera.
The third, and closing, section of the piece returns to the lively measure of the opening, and is based on three vigorous tunes in the same measure, the last one being a repetition of the beginning.

Although the two personages of the last great scene of 'Die Walkure' are both immortals, the music is essentially human in its appeal, and the scene is one of the easiest to understand and appreciate apart from its place in the whole great work.
At the beginning of the scene, Wotan is still wroth with his favourite warrior-maiden, Brutinhilde, for her disobedience. He would condemn her to lose her godhead, to be laid to sleep on the summit of a great rock, there to wait until a mortal shall wake her and claim her as his mortal bride. Little by little she recalls his old pride in her, and persuades him to surround the rock with a great fire so that none may approach her save a hero who knows no fear. Wotan's song of farewell to her, as she is laid to sleep, is blended with the music of the fire as Loge, the Fire god, at Wotan's command, surrounds the crag with flames. It is noble farewell music, touched not only with sadness, but with something of the wonder which Wotan foresees for his child, when Siegfried the Fearless shall come to claim her. The motive of Siegfried is heard, but at the very end we hear the theme of Fate-a grim reminder of the final doom which overhangs the race of gods.

This was one of the first works which aroused the rest of Europe to a recognition of Elgar's greatness, and Richard Strauss was among the earliest to welcome it. He was loud in its praises when it was played first in Germany.
The 'Enigma,' which the Variations have as sub-title, is a two-fold one. Elgar himself tells us that the theme is one which goes harmoniously with another and very well known tune; as musicians would say, Elgar's theme is a counterpoint to the other tune. But what that tune is, Elgar has not told us, nor has anyone yet discovered. The other part of the enigma consists of initials or pseudonyms attached to the several variations, which stand for the composer's friends. The work is dedicated 'To my friends pictured within,' and though a number of these have emerged from so slight a disguise, one or two are even now only guessed at.
There are thirteen variations and a big final one, long enough to be a movement of itself, and space would not permit of a detailed description of each of them. The theme is not always easily traced throughout the variations, and there is at least one which is a little interlude with only a slight relation to the theme. But listeners who hear the opening announcement of the tune attentively will be able to recognize its reappearances, and the very clever use which Elgar makes of parts- of it throughout the course of this beautiful work.
The theme itself falls into two sections, one in minor and one in major, and in the third and fourth bars there is a drop of a seventh which reappears in many of the transformations which the tune undergoes.
5WA Cardiff

The New Poor

A Farce in One Act by Gertrude E. Jennings.

The housing shortage has driven Vera, Eric and Christine into the house and power of Mrs. Buckle. Her drawing-room, in which the action of the play takes place, is draughty and uncomfortable, crowded with heavy, tasteless, rather shabby furniture. On the summit of an ugly cabinet a large stuffed fox glares out from a glass case. In one corner of the room then-is an imitation Japanese folding screen. Christine, whose speech is muffled by a severe cold, crouches over a tiny fire struggling for existence in the grate. Vera is holding a somewhat heated telephone conversation with their landlady (Mrs. Buckle) who wishes to turn them out of their temporary home.
5WA Cardiff

Orchestral Concert

Relayed from The National Museum of Wales
National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)

Almost all the smaller orchestral pieces of Mozart's, called by many various names, are what the Germans know as 'Unterhaltungsmusik'-'Entertainment Music.' Many of them were intended for performance in the open air, which no doubt accounts for the prominent parts given to the winds. Sometimes, depending on the players who were available, a little miniature concerto would make its appearance between the more usual movements, to give the performer in question a specially good innings of his own. But, as a rule, the Divertimento consists of six movements of which a Minuet and Trio is almost invariably one.

Sinigaglia, although he is already past his sixtieth year, is holding his own in contemporary Italian music alongside of a young and very enthusiastic school of moderns and even ultra-moderns. A pupil of Dvorak's, he no doubt acquired from the Bohemian master something of his enthusiasm for folk-music, and has long been active in the collection and use of the folk-tunes of his native Piedmont. His Piedmontese dances appear frequently in concert programmes all over the world.
The name of this piece means 'the squabbles,' or even 'the shindy' at Chioggia; it is merrily descriptive of boisterous country scenes.

(to 14.00)
5WA Cardiff

Cardiff Musical Society

First Concert of the Season 1928-1929
Relayed from the Park Hall
'The Passion of Our Lord'
According to St. Matthew (Bach)
Dorothy Bennett (Soprano), Astra Desmond (Contralto), Tom Pickering (Tenor), Ronald Chivers (Baritone), George Parker (Bass), The Choir of The Cardiff Musical Society
National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)
Leader, Albert Voorsanger
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

Part II
Recit, (Tenor), 'And they that laid hold on Jesus'
Choral, 'How falsely doth the world'
Recit, (Tenor and Bass), 'Yea, tho' many false witnesses'
Recit. (Tenor), 'To witness false'
Aria (Tenor), 'Be strong, endure'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass), and Chorus, 'And the High Priest'
Recit. (Tenor) and Chorus, 'Then did they spit'
Choral, 'O Lord, who dares to smite Thee'
Recit. (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass) and Chorus, 'How Peter sat without'
Recit. (Tenor), 'Then began he to curse'
Aria (Alto), 'Have mercy, Lord, on me'
Choral, 'Lamb of God, I fall'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass) and Chorus, 'When the morning was come'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass), 'And he cast down the pieces'
Aria (Bass), 'Give me back my Lord'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass), 'And Jesus stood before the Governor'
Choral, 'Commit thy way to Jesus'
Recit. (Soprano, Tenor, and Bass) and Chorus, 'Now at that feast'
Choral, 'O wond'rous Love'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass), 'And the Governor said'
Recit. (Soprano), 'To all men Jesus good hath done'
Aria (Soprano), 'For love my Saviour now is dying'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass) and Chorus, 'But they cried out'
Recit. (Alto), 'O Gracious God'
Recit. (Tenor) and Chorus. 'Then the soldiers of the Governor'
Choral, 'O Sacred Head surrounded'
Recit. (Tenor), 'And after that they had mocked Him'
Recit. (Bass), 'In truth, to bear the Cross'
Aria (Bass) 'Come, healing Cross'
Recit. (Tenor) and Chorus, 'And when they were come unto a place'
Hecit. (Tenor), 'The thieves also which were crucified'
Recit. (Alto), 'Ah, Golgotha!'
Solo (Alto) and Chorus, 'See the Saviour's outstretched hands'
Recit. (Tenor and Bass) and Chorus, 'Now from the sixth hour'
Choral, 'Be near me, Lord, when dying'
Recit. (Tenor) and Chorus, 'And, behold, the veil of the temple'
Soli and Chorus, 'And now the Lord to rest is laid'
Chorus, 'In tears of grief'

Iy is one measure of Bach's supreme greatness that since his day no man has ventured to compose Passion music in anything like the manner or scale of his splendid works. Oratorios, sacred Cantatas, and the like, have come and-in many cases, fortunately-gone for ever, but the 'Matthew Passion' remains unchallenged as the greatest expression, in devotional music, of the story of the Passion. The form in vogue in Bach's own day was a strange mixture of many styles, sacred and secular, a sort of hybrid of church music and opera. He had, perforce, to adapt himself to the mode of his times; that he did so with such splendid effect is probably due as much to his own intensely devout regard for the Church and its observances as to his musicianship.
The form of the 'Matthew Passion' is impressive by its very simplicity. The story is set before us in a series of dramatic episodes, almost pictorial in their directness. At salient points, the narrative is interrupted, and a meditation on the scene which has just been recounted is set before us, either in an aria or in a choral verse. The choice of these latter was made by Bach himself, and indeed the whole text of the Passion was made under his supervision. There are in all some twenty-four scenes, of which roughly half are rounded off by chorales and the other half by arias. The situations themselves are vividly set before the hearer, and the meditations which follow on them, though as a rule simple, sometimes almost childlike in their simplicity, are among the most profoundly devotional things in the whole realm of church music.
The actual telling of the story is in the hands of a narrator-called the Evangelist-a tenor soloist, in a series of recitatives with orchestral and organ accompaniment. The utterances of our Lord Himself, though also recitatives, are more nearly in arioso form - with a more flowing, melodious line-and are meant to be accompanied by the strings alone. By that Bach no doubt had in mind the more ethereal-tone quality which belongs to the strings than to the full orchestra and organ. The declamation throughout is simple, but words or phrases which Bach meant to be stressed are brought out in a very striking way in the vocal line, often helped by the figure used in the accompaniment.
Only the last part of the Passion is to be sung this evening, dealing with Jesus' betrayal and death.
In Bach's day the Passions were sung at vespers on Good Friday, sometimes in his own church of St. Thomas, and sometimes in St. Nicholas' Church, for the music of which he was also responsible.
5WA Cardiff

Echoes Across the Channel

A Programme from Wales and The West Country

National Orchestra of Wales
Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru

Vaughan Williams' enthusiastic interest in English folk-tunes is known to everybody. It has influenced his own composition in a striking way, lending it much of its distinctively English character. In the Suite which we are now to hear, the tunes are presented to us quite simply, and tell their own story with no other added interest than that of effective accompaniment and instrumentation.
The first movement is on the tune 'Seventeen come Sunday'; the second, which the composer has called 'Intermezzo,' is 'My Bonny Boy,' with a short, merry section in the middle of the movement; the third is a March built up on folk-songs from Somerset-an effective and vigorous March with an alternative section in 6-8 time.

Sir Edward German's own light operas and the universally popular music which he has written for so many of the Shakespeare plays no doubt have the strongest hold on our affections. But of his purely orchestral music, of which there is a considerable volume, this 'Welsh Rhapsody is easily the best known. Specially composed for the Cardiff Festival of 1904, and produced there, it has ever since figured constantly in programmes, wherever the best British music is played. It is built up on four traditional Welsh tunes, and these are presented with constantly varied interest, and with all German's skill in the use of orchestral tone colours. The opening section is based on the tune 'Loudly proclaim.' It is in a vigorous Allegro, but after its announcement, it passes through many changes of time in the development which follows. The second part, corresponding to the Scherzo movement of a symphony, is vivacious and merry, in 6-8 rhythm. The tune used in it is 'Hunting the Hare.' A slow section comes next, quiet and thoughtful, founded on that beautiful old tune 'David of the White Rock.' The last section, often played separately, is a stirring exposition of the fine march 'The Men of Harlech.'
5WA Cardiff

'Gaffer and Gavotte '—II

A West-of-England Programme of Simple Humour and Sophisticated Dance
During last summer listeners first made the acquaintance of Gaffer, who might roughly be described as the Gloucestershire representative of the better-known Devonshire family of Churdles Ash. The resemblance is, perhaps, no more than a similarity inherent in men whose lives have been spent in daily contact with the soil; but it is this very characteristic which makes Gaffer and his kind very agreeable company for an hour or so. As on the last occasion, the introduction of the contrasting, but charmingly sophisticated, dance rhythm between the sketches, is made in order to prevent Gaffer from becoming (as in real life he sometimes is) too much of a good thing.
5WA Cardiff

A Symphony Concert

Relayed from the City Hall.
Relayed to Daventry Experimental Station
Harold Williams (Baritone); Isabel Gray (Pianoforte)
The Cardiff Station Symphony Orchestra
Conducted by Sir Henry J. Wood
Orchestral items will be as follows:

The general title of Bach's six 'Brandenburg Concertos', comes from the name of a certain prince or Elector of Brandenburg, who was a great music lover. He asked Bach to write six Concertos, and Bach completed the commission in 1721. When the composer died, the works were included in a parcel of other music and valued at about a couple of pounds!
The fourth Concerto, which is not quite so frequently heard as are some of the others, is written for a little solo group of two Flutes and a Violin, which is 'played off' against the orchestra all through the work.
There are three Movements - a quick one, a graceful slow one, in which the Flutes hold the melodic line, and a magnificent fugal Finale.

This Symphony in F is now just over forty years old. Its first performance was given in Vienna, under Richter (afterwards so well known in this country), and after each movement there was excited applause - and also hissing. Richter nicknamed this symphony 'The Heroic', in imitation of the title of Beethoven's third symphony, and the name has some warrant in the feeling of the first and last movements.
There are four Movements - a quick big-spirited one, a gentle song-like one, a romantically melancholy one, and another quick and vigorous one.
Many good judges consider this Brahms' finest orchestral work.
5WA Cardiff

A Light Orchestral Programme

Relayed to London and Daventry
National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)
Leader, Albert Voorsanger
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

There are five sections to this joyous waltz of Strauss, one of the test of his hundreds of dance tunes. There are words to it which might be very nearly sacrilegious were it not for the naive, almost childlike, simplicity which inspires them. The first section sets forth how the three gifts of the title were ordained by a wise Providence for mankind's blessing. The next is a Rhapsody in praise of wine and good cheer, when wisely used, and the third glorifies true love and wedded bliss. The fourth embodies a sentiment which might well be taken to heart, the benefits to body, soul, and spirit, of carefree singing, especially when happy voices join in harmony; and the last is a summing-up of what has gone before - a homage to Martin Luther who is credited with the invention of the phrase, 'Wine, Woman and Song.'

Weber explained that 'Invitation to the Waltz,' originally composed for pianoforte, has a little story attached to it. At a ball, 'a gentleman approaches a lady and asks for the pleasure of a dance. At first she hesitates; he presses; she consents. Now they converse more easily.
He begins; she replies.
Now for the dance! They take their places and wait for it to begin. Then follows the dance. At its close, the gentleman expresses his thanks, and the lady bows.'
One of the chief interests of the piece for musicians is that first Berlioz and afterwards Weingartner, two great masters of the orchestra, chose it as suitable for illustrating the different tone qualities of instruments and combinations of instruments. Berlioz's version, simple and direct, does indeed invest the piece with real - brilliance and a sense of colour.

Cecile Chaminade, one of the first French women to win an important place in the world of composition, is also a brilliant pianist. Many of her songs and smaller pieces for pianoforte have a strong hold on the affections of music lovers, but of her larger works almost the only one which has earned a lasting popularity is the Ballet Callirhoe, produced in 1888. The Dance of the Scarves and the Little Jest, the two movements from it which are to be played here, are happy examples of the grace and charm of her music.
5WA Cardiff

Mozart Trios, No. II

FRANK Thomas (Violin); RONALD HARDING (Violoncello); HUBERT PENGELLY (Pianoforte) Trio in B Flat
Allegro; Larghetto; Allegretto
MAX BRUCH 'S career was a very happy and comfortable one, and its events were really no more than the series of interesting appointments which he held, and the successful production of hismusic. For three years he lived in this country, coming in 1880 to accept the post of conductor- of the Liverpool Philharmonic Society. During those years he introduced more than one of his own works, and conducted a performance of his big Cantata, Odysseus, by the London Bach Choir. Much of his best work was for choirs, especially male voice choirs, and though these are admirably laid out for the enjoyment both of the singers and of the audiences, they have some. how failed to keep their hold on the affections of the present day. It is almost solely by his violin music that we remember him in this country, and these pieces for violin, violoncello, and pianoforte will no doubt be new to most listeners. Like all
Bruch's music, with its foundation rooted in simple, melodious folk-song, they are as grateful to play as they are to hear.
5WA Cardiff

A Choral and Operatic Concert

Relayed from the Assembly Room, City Hall
Stiles Allen (Soprano), Parry Jones (Tenor), Foster Richardson (Bass), Choir of The Cardiff Musical Society
National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)
Leader, Albert Voorsanger
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite
'The Twilight of the Gods' (Ring of the Nibelungs, IV)
Act I
Foster Richardson and Orchestra
Hagen's Watch.
Scene 2
Act II
Foster Richardson, Male Chorus, and Orchestra
Hagen's Call. Scene 1
Parry Jones and Orchestra
Siegfried's Death Song
Siegfried's Funeral March
Stiles Allen and Orchestra
Closing Scene

Wagner began the work which afterwards grow into the great trilogy of the 'Nibelungs Ring' (although there are four works in it, it is usually thought of as a trilogy, the first being a Prelude to the other three) as a single opera called 'Siegfried's Death.' It was only afterwards that he realized that the story of it depended so much on what had gone before, that he embarked on the much bigger work which we now know. The only alternative would have been to make the characters themselves explain, in the course of the action, what had led up to the final catastrophe, and Wagner himself had no doubt that it was in every way better to let the story tell itself. It is so splendid a tale as.to be well worth reading, quite apart from the music, and it is available in more than one passably good English version. Listeners, musical or otherwise, would find its interest repay the closest study, and familiarity with the story and with all its underlying symbolism is necessary if one is really to understand the full meaning and beauty of Wagner's music.
The name 'Gotterdammerung' is not easy to translate, and to call it either the 'Twilight' or the 'Dusk' of the gods is to miss a part of its significance. It conveys something of fading away, and by the end of the drama the whole race of the old gods has vanished. Siegfried. too, has been slain, the last of the heroic line of the Walsungs, and his bride Brunnhilde. But it is through her sacrifice that redemption ii promised to the coming race of men. It is the great motive of redemption which dominates the music of the closing scene, when the Rhine Maidens have won back the Ring made of their precious gold, and the curse which clung about, it so long as it was in the hands of gods or of men has been taken from the earth. Deeply tragic as the story is, it thus closes on a note of promise; it has besides, in its course, passages of real joyous-ness, which serve but to emphasize the sombre episodes and figures.
Hagen, who sits on guard before his own Hall, in the first episode to be presented, is of the Nibelung's kin; he is scheming to win the Ring from Siegfried; no treachery nor guile is to stand in his way.
At the beginning of the second extract he is summoning the vassals from the lands about the banks of the Rhine; a great hunt in the forest is being planned, and already Siegfried's death has been decided on, Hagen having contrived, by means of a magic potion, to make him false to Brunnhilde and forgetful of his own past life.
In the third act, the hunting party has rested by the banks of the river, and Siegfried has sung of his adventures before he came on the ill-fated journey to the Rhine; Hagen has stabbed the hero in the back with his spear. Siegfried sings a last ecstatic greeting to Brunnhilde.
Then, as the men bear him across the rocks on his own shield, as night falls and a. pale moon shines through the trees, we hear the majestic solemnity of what we call his 'funeral march.'
The last great scene is once more in the Hall of Hagen's clan. Siegfried's body is burned on a great funeral pyre, and when Brunnhilde has sung an eloquent farewell, she mounts her Valkyr horse and leaps into the flames. The Rhine overflows, and the Rhine Maidens swim through the flood to take their Ring from Brunnhilde's finger amid the ashes. The pyre and all it holds are carried away by the flood, and in the distance the home of the gods, Valhalla, can be seen in flames, crumbling to its ruin.
5WA Cardiff

Christmas Carol Concert

Relayed from the Assembly Room, City Hall
Relayed to Daventry Experimental

National Orchestra of Wales
(Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Cymru)
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

Mr. Percy Pitt is known to the world of music not only as a distinguished conductor of opera and concert, one who has had a large share in raising Covent Garden opera to the high position it holds, but also as a composer, among whose orchestral works in light-hearted mood, the 'Cinderella Suite' has always held a favourite place.
Appearing originally as 'A Musical Fairy Tale' for Pianoforte Duet, it was afterwards trans-scribed by the composer for orchestra.
The first movement begins in moderate time, after four bars of prelude, with a horn solo whose rhythm is afterwards taken up by the rest of the orchestra. The theme itself is heard now on the strings, now on the woodwinds, and for a moment the music rises to a strong climax, to die away again softly at the end.
The second movement is mysterious in its import. While the brasses have chords, swelling and dying away, the strings and afterwards harp and woodwinds jump about in little figures of elfin fantasy; and like the first movement this one dies away very softly.
The third movement is a dainty waltz with the tune shared at first between clarinet and flute. It is worked out at some length with changes of mood and key, but throughout in flowing waltz rhythm.
A slow movement comes next, whose principal theme is introduced by flute and strings, with another melody which flute and clarinet play on its first appearance. The music grows in fervour to a big climax, but the end is again in the tender mood of the opening.
Number five is a brisk march with the first tune in the woodwinds. The whole orchestra afterwards takes it up and presents it very vigorously, and there is a middle section with a slower, broader melody. At the end we hear the first march tune on the whole strength of the orchestra.
5WA Cardiff

A Popular Concert

Relayed from the Assembly Room, City Hall
National Orchestra of Wales
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

Although born in Ireland, William Vincent Wallace was a Scot, as his name would certainly suggest. He had a rather adventurous career in many different parts of the world, and was thirty-two years old before producing his first opera, the evergreen Maritana. in London. The opera Lurline dates from some four years later, 1849, when its composer was in Germany, and where he had to some extent come under the influence of Chopin. The opera deals with the romantic part of the world in which he was then at home. It was produced in London in 1860, meeting with even greater success than Maritana; in many ways it is actually a better work, though it has not maintained its hold upon the public affections in the same way.
The Overture opens with a slow solemn introduction begun by the winds and with a fine flowing melody for the violins. A brilliant quick section follows, in which again the violins have a rousing tune; a rather wistful melody on flute and clarinet succeeds, the oboe afterwards joining, and again the vigorous mood of the opening is heard.

Don Carlos comes in the sequence of Verdi's works between the middle period which gave us Rigoletto and other evergreen favourites, and the last stage of his career, which began with Aida. The scene is laid in Spain in the days of the ruthless Philip II, and the story deals with the tragedy of Philip's son, Don Carlos, who is in love with his stepmother, Elizabeth of Valois. This air is sung in the fourth Act by the Princess Eboli, who is in love with Don Carlos, and who becomes the instrument of his downfall through her jealousy of the Queen, when she learns of the Prince's love for Elizabeth.

This extract is taken from the second Act of Siegfried. With his father's sword, which he had himself forged from the broken pieces that came down to him; Siegfried has slain the dragon and won from it the treasure made from the Rhinegold and the magic Ring itself. The touch of the dragon's blood has given him power to understand the birds, and at this part of the opera he is lying on his back under the trees listening, as they tell him of the wondrous maid who lies asleep mid a ring of fire.

The story of Parsifal, as remodelled by Wagner from the old legends, is briefly as follows:
The Grail has been given into the keeping of Titurel and his Knights. They have, too, the holy spear with which the soldier pierced our Lord's side upon the Cross. Titurel has built a great castle, Montsalvat, to guard these sacred relics against a pagan world and especially against the magician Klingsor, who with the help of his Flower Maidens and the arch-enchantress, Kundry endeavours to seduce the Knights. Amfortas, son of the old Titurel, has been overcome by the magician's arts, and has been forced to leave in his hands the sacred spear, with which he himself was sorely wounded when Klingsor seized it. Nothing can heal the wound save a touch of the spear, and it has been prophesied to the Knights that only a guileless fool can avail to win it back for them. Parsifal, our English Sir Percivale, is the guileless Knight who in the end overcomes Klingsor's magic and not only restores the spear to Amfortas's keeping, but wins Kundry to abandon her sorceries and join the service of the Grail, to find death and forgiveness in the last mystic scene when Amfortas is healed and the radiance of the Grail is shed again over its Knights.
The Good Friday Music is in the third Act; Parsifal comes to the aged Knight Gurnemanz, who is now a hermit beside his forest spring, and on whom the repentant Kundry is now waiting. The old Knight tells Parsifal that it is Good Friday morning, and that the first spring flowers of the year are waking refreshed by the tears of penitents. The themes of the Grail and of Faith are heard in this beautiful extract, as well as the melody played by the oboe, which has the name 'the Good Friday Spell.'
5WA Cardiff

Venetian Night

Architecture has been described as frozen music; here are translations into sound of the colour and grace and enchantment of Venice, of the sunshine and brightness of Italy.
This Suite contains four pieces: (1) Approaching Venice; (2) Serenade; (3) Gondola Song; (4) Carnival.

The Council of Three
A Play in One Act by Frank Bremner

The Scene is laid in Venice in 1703. At a table in a dimly-lit room in the Ducal Palace sit two men. One is clad in red, the other in black, and in the hoods of their gowns are slit-holes for the eyes. Two inquisitors in black from the Council of Ten, and one in red from the Council of the Doge, hold office for one year on the Venetian Inquisition of State.
A woman, Francesca Contarini, is brought before them to be examined.

In the South - Alassio is a musical record of impressions of Italy - more especially of 'a glorious afternoon in the Vale of Andora', with snow-tipped mountains on the horizon, and the blue Mediterranean, and with thoughts of the strife and power of the old Roman civilization, suggested by the ruins at hand.
In the extract we are to hear, which brings in a tune of pastoral feeling, the theme is Elgar's own.

(to 23.00)
5WA Cardiff

A Varied Concert: Orchestra

Happiness came to Beethoven when, in 1806, he became engaged to the Countess
Therese of Brunswick. The engagement, alas, camo to nothing in the end, but for the time being the Composer was in bliss; and this Symphony, written soon after that happy period began, was surely affected by his joyful feelings, for it is one of the most exhilarating of all the nine Symphonies. It is in four Movements.
First Movement. A slow Introduction precedes the lively Movement, whose First Main Tune is heard on Strings and answered by Woodwind. Quickly there comes a lull, but equally quickly the whole Orchestra takes up the First Tune once again, this time ending with violent, insistent chords, 'off the beat'. Strings are then suddenly left to themselves, and die down to a soft chord. This they hold while the Second Main Tune is heard, a rustic little phrase in Bassoon, then Oboe, then high up in the Flute, which prolongs the Tune. This leads into other Tunes-first a boisterous one, then a quiet conversational one in Woodwind. There is still more material, but this is the most important, and rules a delightful piece in which some attractive novelty is for ever cropping up.
Second Movement. This is in strict 'Sonata' form. It opens with a sustained, song-like First Main Tune in Strings. This is repeated by Woodwind, with decoration in Violins and pizzicato (plucked) accompaniment in the lower Strings. Afterwards something of a climax is developed by Full Orchestra. When this dies down, the Clarinet gives out the Second Main Tune, another song-like melody. There is a soft string accompaniment. After this there is a very brief development section, followed by a regular recapitulation of the two Main Tunes.
Third Movement. A gay Minuet (with the usual 'Trio' as contrast in the middle) needs no special description. For once, however, Beethoven, after repeating his Minuet, gives both Minuet and Trio again, making a five-section piece.
Fourth Movement. A glorious bit of the cheeriest Beethoven, this, woven out of the usual two Main Tunes (First going off at once, and Second entering, after a Full Orchestral climax and a dying down of the excitement, quietly and expressively).
5WA Cardiff

A Red Indian Night's Entertainment

Written and Produced by Donald Davies.
The Redskins hold many prisoners, palefaces, blackfaces, and faces of unknown colour. They powwow in their camps of the Five Tribes of Wah on the banks of the Taffywatah. The Big Chief Yum-yum-tummy-yum orders his captives to be brought before him, and to the delight of the little chiefs, the braves, the squaws, and the papooses the prisoners are forced to earn their ransom in Song and Story.
Hau! Hau!
Wah! Wah!
Careful attention must be paid to the original Red Indian expressions, which well repay close study.
5WA Cardiff

Harvest Time

Autumn is generally considered mournful because of the fall of the leaf, but this season holds harvest-time - the Crown of the Year.
'Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they?
Think not of them, thou hast thy music too'.
- Keats
The Augmented Station Orchestra
Conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

The First Dance Rhapsody was brought out at the. Hereford Festival of 1909. It is written for a large Orchestra, including the rarely-heard Heckelphone (an improved Bass Oboe).
At the outset, a short Introduction brings forth some of the tunes to be worked upon. Two of these appear successively on Oboe and Flute. Another motif of which use is made is the little dance played by the Horns.
In the next section the time quickens considerably, and a new tune is given out, low down. Violins, in octaves, have another. The treatment of these is free, and charmingly coloured.
After a climax, a slow section ensues, in which a Solo Violin has a beautiful version of the first Tune, accompanied only by Strings.
The last clear division is that in which the very lively pace is resumed. The ending is loud and most energetic.
5WA Cardiff

A Sullivan Programme

The Station Orchestra
conducted by Warwick Braithwaite

Overture to the Ball
At twenty-eight, when he wrote this Overture, Sullivan had already achieved a fine command both of the Orchestra and of that knack of writing gay tunes that has endeared him to us all. He wrote few pieces more spirited than this, even in the Comic Operas-and that is saying a good deal.
After a short Introduction, there begins a very rhythmical, leaping dance-tune (started by the First Violins-chief accompaniment. Horns). This tune holds sway for some time, being given to most instruments in turn, including Flute and Piccolo. Later, there follow several waltz-tunes. Towards the end, the dancers break into a Galop.

Topliss Green (Baritone)
Thou art passing hence
The Lost Chord
(Picture on page 353.)

The Station Repertory Choir
The long day closes
When love and beauty

Graceful Dances from 'Henry VIII'
Overture to 'The Yeomen of the Guard'

Topliss Green
O swallow, swallow
Ho, jolly Jenkin ('Ivanhoe')

O gladsome light
Hush thee, my baby
5WA Cardiff

Bristol Opera Season: The Travelling Companion: Act II


The Palace Square. The Princess is perplexed. Suitors come, but seeking her dower only. The King is troubled too, and thinks it is folly of woman to 'hold herself so high'. The crowd comes in, John among the people. He sees the Princess, and at once loves her.
A Herald proclaims the terms of the competition. A Riddle-guessed aright, the Princess and half her father's kingdom; unguessed, death. 'The Riddle, Madam?' cries John. 'Tell me my thought', she answers. Tomorrow is to be the day of the answer.
Whilst this has been going on, the Travelling Companion has come down the road. His looks are odd, the crowd jeers at him. But John takes him by the hand - 'The man is my friend', he says.

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