Conducted by CHARLES LEGGETT
RIDGWAY WEST (Tenor)
CLEMENT RUSSELL (Baritone)
Few musicians ever had so adventurous a career as William Wallace, composer of Maritana. His father was a military bandmaster and the young Wallace was born in Waterford, Ireland, in 1812. He very quickly became a good player not only of violin and pianoforte, but of the clarinet, and was only seventeen when he was given a church organist's post. He gave it up, within a year, however, the violin attracting him more. In 1834 he played a violin concerto of his own in Dublin, with such success that he might have looked forward to a prosperous career in that line. But his health gave way and ho went to Australia in the hope of warding off a threatening, lung trouble. Sheep farming was nominally his job there, but he continued to play his violin, not only as a recreation, but in concerts. Australia, however, failed to hold him either to his farming or his fiddle, and for some years he wandered over many parts of the world, experiencing such vicissitudes as earthquakes, battles between rival South American States, and even a narrow escape from the clutches of a tiger. But everywhere he went his reputation as a violinist was enhanced.
By 1845 he was in London, and someone seems to have suggested to him that he should compose an opera. Maritana was the result; it appeared near the end of 1845 and was an immediate and assured success. It has ever since maintained its hold on the popular affections, although Wallace himself wrote other and better works afterwards.
THE WIRELESS CHORUS
Chorus Master, STANFORD ROBINSON
THE B.B.C. ORCHESTRA
Conducted by JOSEPH LEWIS
ALTHOUGH Romeo and Juliet is no longer so often heard in full in this country as Gounod's Faust, it is a very good second to it in popular favour in many of the world's leading opera houses. It is indeed rich in the melodious grace and tenderness with which we expect Gounod to surround a congenial theme. Following the Shakespeare text pretty closely, it seizes si much on the two young people themselves for its situations that it has been rather scornfully spoken of as ' a love duet with interruptions.' Jt, made its first appearance at the Théâtre Lyrique, in Paris, at the end of April, 1867, and in July of the same year was given at Covent Garden.
London is not often so speedy in importing new masterpieces. It has been played many times since, and most of the great operatic artists have seized on the fine chances which it gives of showing off their gifts. Dame Melba, as music lovers remember wistfully, chose part of it for her farewell appearance at Covent Garden.
In the Prologue, the principal characters join with the chorus and orchestra to rehearse in brief the tragic story which is to unfold itself in five acts on the stage.
RICH as Scotland counts itself in its treasure of folk-song and story, it has produced comparatively little music for the stage or concert-room which is at all national in character.
Hamish MaeCunn , born in Greenoek in 1808, was one of the very first to give us both, and his untimely death in 1916 robbed the world of music of one from whom much was still looked for. Success came to him at an early age, and while ho was still in his 'teens he had two overtures played at the Crystal Palace Concerts-one of them, Land of the Mountain and the Flood, as popular today as it was astonishingly mature then to be the work of a student. Winner of a scholarship at the Royal College on its opening, he was a professor there at the ago of twenty-two. But, though he won distinction as a conductor, too. in music which ranged from Merrie England to Tristan-he directed the production in English of many of tho later Wagner works--it is for his own music that wo hold him in affection still. It, includes two serious operas, both produced with marked success, many lighter stage pieces, cantatas, orchestral works, part songs. songs and incidental music, almost all eloquent of the spirit of his own poetic country.
The Wreck of the Hesperus was produced, with elaborate pictorial illustrations. at tho London Coliseum, in 1905: it has never quite recovered from that début, though it is in no way the kind of music which needs adventitious aids.
Relayed from THE QUEEN'S HALL, LONDON (Sole, Lessees, Messrs. Chappell andCo., Ltd.)
THE B.B.C. SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
(Leader, ARTHUR CATTERALL )
Conducted by Sir LANDON RONALD
APART from the interest which Goethe's poetry had for Beethoven, the figure of ' Egmont himself in the play made the same kind of appeal to his sympathies as Coriolanus and other heroes, and, though the music to the play was commissioned for Vienna, Beethoven told a friend that ho had composed it out of love for the story. He composed not only the overture, but four entr'actes, the two songs which Clarchen sings in the course of the play, a beautiful little piece which is played at the moment of her death on the stage, when the candle which stands beside her flickers out as she draws her last breath, a melodrama which accompanies Egmont's dream, and a Symphony of Victory which comes immediately after his farewell speech upon the scaffold. The music is on a splendid plane, and it is a thousand pities that in this country we have so few chances of hearing any of it except the overture. It, to be sure, is likely to hold its place for always as among the noblest things Beethoven gave us. It is a real overture to the play, forming a concise epitome of the story, and at the same time standing securely on its own feet as music.
ONE of the artists of world-wide renown of whom London is very justly proud, Myra Hess was born there, carried out all her musical training at its great schools, and made her debut at its Queen's Hall. She was then only seventeen, but her masterly playing of the Beethoven Concerto in G, with the Beecham orchestra, won immediate success, and she very quickly took her place among the foremost pianists of our time. All over Europe and on the other fide of the Atlantic, where she has made repeated concert tours in Canada and in the States, she is acclaimed as an artist of very wide attainmments. Her repertoire embraces practically everytliing that is worth while in the literature of her . instrument, from Scarlatti's Sonatas, Bach's 48, and Beethoven, to Schumann, Brahms, and the moderns, and in all of these her musicianly insight is as obvious as her brilliant and easy technique. Young composers, especially of England, owe her a great deal too, for the generous way in which she has so often brought out new and unknown music.
THIS is one of several big works mentioned
-L in a letter of Beethoven's, dated in December 1800, as having been composed that year. The first six String Quartets, a String Qnintet, the Horn Sonata and the B Flat Pianoforte Sonata (Opus 22) all belong to 1800, proving the immense energy and industry with which ho was working.
The C Minor Concerto was not played in public until three years later-on April 5, 1803, in the Theater an der Wien. Beethoven took the solo part himself, and tho programme included besides, the Second Symphony, and the cantata ' The Mount of Olives.' The Concerto, by all accounts, in spite of difficulties at rehearsal, made a better impression than the Symphony. Modelled pretty closely on Mozart's pattern, it begins none the less to reveal something of the Beethoven of the splendid middle period.
Dr. JOHN BAKER (University Demonstrator in Zoology, University Museum, Oxford): ' The Control of Development '
THIS evening Dr. John Baker outlines
-L a subject which has been enormously studied and developed in recent years, to the extent of revolutionizing older theories of heredity altogether. Mendel, the scientist responsible for the theory which, with modifications, holds today, died less than fifty years ago-in 1884. He was a monk and eventually Abbot in the Augustinian monastery at Brunn, in Moravia, and carried out his experiments on plants in the garden of the monastery. Dr. Baker will explain the applications of his theories of inheritance to man, and give some idea of the possibilities of what would be the sensational power of artificially determining the sex of children. Next week Professor Julian Huxley , the eminent biologist who opened the series, will close it with a summary of the position of man with regard to science and to reality.
A Running Commentary on the Rugby Football Match
By Captain H. B. T. WAKELAM
Relayed from RAVENHILL PARK, BELFAST
THE Springboks reach another stage in their long and arduous tour to-day when they meet Ulster's side on the excellent ground at Ravenhill Park. Belfast. It will be a good test for the visitors, and will give them further insight into the game, as Ireland plays it. Rugby actually is one of those points which helps to unite Southern and Northern Ireland. Ulster joins in the inter-Province tournament and members of her side play in the National team. Recently Ulster has not been able to field teams of any special strength, but these things run in cycles. Forward no doubt they will give the South Africans a hard game, but it will be difficult for their backs to hold the volatile
Springbok attack. The game should be interesting to follow through Captain Wakelam's description, if the South Africans can field a representative side after their hard matches of the past week or so.
'THE DAUGHTER OF THE REGIMENT ' by Donizetti
The Countess of*Berkenfeld GLADYS PARR
Maria (Vivandiere) GERTRUDE JOHNSON Tonio (A Young Tyrolese Peasant) ,
Sulpizio (Sergeant) ....... GEORGE BAKER
THE WIRELESS CHORUS
THE B.B.C. ORCHESTRA
Conducted by JOSEPH LEWIS
OUR grandfathers counted Donizetti as one of the great masters of melody, holding his operas in a very warm affection. The Daughter was produced in Parisin 1840, and before long, made its way to opera houses abroad: its blend of simple melody and light-hearted merriment, with a flavouring of sentiment, has always attracted singers as well as audiences, and such great artists as Jenny Lind , Sonlag, Patti, and Albani enjoyed playing the title r6le.
Donizetti was a soldier for some years, and in making the Italian libretto himself was on familiar ground. In the first act, which begins while a battle is in progress near the home of the Countess of Berkenfeld, Maria is brought there by Sulpizio, a sergeant in the regiment which claims her as its daughter : she had been found as a mere infant on a battlefield and brought up among the soldiers. There is a merry scene in which she goes through her drill, and sings, with Sulpizio, the famous Rataplan duet, playing the drum herself. The sergeant then prevails on her to tell him about a young man who saved her life on the verge of a dangerous precipice. Tonio, the young man himself, makes an unexpected appearance immediately afterwards ; the soldiers have captured him, and, but for Maria's intercession, would have shot him as a spy. He sets their suspicions at rest by enlisting in the regiment. He and Maria love one another, but no sooner have they confessed that, than the Countess claims the girl as her niece, and insists on carrying her off to her chateau. Tonio and the regiment take a sad farewell of her. In the second act, in the chateau, Maria is learning tho airs and graces proper to her station: but with the old sergeant at hand, for he has remained by her side, she must now and again break into the old song of the regiment. Tonio returns, now as an officer —commissioned for valour on the field-and at, the end the two young people are happily united.
Relayed from The Queen's Hall, London
(Sole Lessees, Messrs. Chappell and Co., Ltd.)
THE B.B.C. SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
(Leader, ARTHUR CATTERALL)
Conductor, Adrian Boult
Accompanied by The B.B.C. Theatre Orchestra
Conducted by Joseph Lewis
Well-known choruses, in which listeners are asked to join, will be sung during the programme
Elsie and Doris Waters - Entertainers
Wilkie Bard - Comedian
The Hulbert Brothers (Jack Hulbert and Claude Hulbert)
'The Week's Vaudeville'
Not a Serious Review by Herbert Farjeon
Those critics who find vaudeville lacking in comedy will have no cause to complain of tonight's programme, headed by Wilkie Bard and the Hulbert Brothers. These comedians represent between them the older and the younger generation of comedy. Wilkie Bard is an old favourite, tried in music hall and pantomime, while Jack and Claude, graduating via musical comedy and revue, have lately perfected a new, ultra-modern type of comedy, light, intimate, conceived for and directed at the microphone. The contrast will be of interest to those who study that rarest and most elusive art, the art of making other people laugh. Elsie and Doris Waters - Mrs. Waters' Daughters of cabaret and vaudeville, Gert and Daisy, of many best-selling gramophone records - need no introduction to listeners. They are among the 'old timers' of radio, who have held their place in popularity by the invention they show in producing new songs. Tonight, being Saturday, is the evening reserved for the Vaudeville Critic. Herbert Farjeon, who began to experiment some weeks ago, still holds to his post, though it is intended later to follow him with other critics whose gift of humour is capable of coping with the tricky task of reviewing the week's vaudeville. A novelty of the programme is the inclusion of 'Joe' Lewis with the B.B.C. Theatre Orchestra. Mr. Lewis will conduct community-singing of some of the old songs we all know. The audience in the studio will join in-also, it is hoped, the enormously larger audience on 'the other side of the microphone.'
BERNARD SHORE (Viola) and ANGUS MORRISON (Pianoforte)
BRAHMS' Sonata in E Flat, written for clarinet and pianoforte, is here transcribed for viola in place of the clarinet. Brahms composed it for the most famous clarinet player of his day, Muhlficld, who was so stout that the legend is he could support his instrument on his waistcoat without using his hands. Brahms
'wrote a number of works, combining the clarinet with other instruments for Mühlfield, whose proportions so far from interfering, may even have contributed to a mellow tone unsurpassed in Europe.
BENJAMIN DALE , member of a musical family
-his father was a talented amateur musician -had an orchestral overture performed when lie was only fifteen and a student at the Royal Academy. He discarded it, and continued to compose and discard, at last achieving, in his 17th year, a pianoforte sonata which was published. He then began to attract considerable notice. He gained awards in the well-known Cobbett competitions, particularly with n work for viola and pianoforte (one of many) which ho wrote for his friend, Lionel Tertis.
In the year before the War, Dale came to hold a high place in the renaissance of British music that was then so active, but in August, 1914, ho happened to be in Germany, and was interned at Ruhleben for the whole period of the War. Since then, his health, at first impaired by his internment, may have prevented him from writing much. In any case, his fastidiousness prevents his output becoming large, though it ensures such a consistently high standard, that his first professor, Frederick Corder , claims for Dale that he has written ' fewer and better works than "any English composer of his generation.'
Relayed from The Old Vic
The plot of the opera is founded on a well-known Sicilian story of village life, and is in one act, without change of scene. It begins with a serenade, sung before the curtain rises.
Turiddu, the singer, and Lola, to whom it is addressed, had been sweethearts, but when Turiddu went off soldiering, the inconstant Lola had married Alfio, a wagoner.
Tho curtain rises on a village in holiday mood.
It is Easter morning, and, while some are bound for church, others are clearly bent on pleasure.
Gradually the villagers go off, until only Lucia, Turiddu's mother, and Santuzza, a village girl, are left. Santuzza feels she dare not enter the church, and to Lucia she confesses her griefs. When Turiddu came back and found Lola married to another, he had turned to Santuzza for consolation, but now has deserted her in her need. Lucia promises to help. Turiddu comes in, on his way to church, and Santuzza reproaches him bitterly, begging him to return to her. But just then Lola passes, and Turiddu roughly throws
Santuzza from him to follow Lola into the church. As Santuzza raises herself from the ground, Alfio comes ou the scene, looking for his wife, Lola. Bitterly hurt as she is by Turiddu's heedless treatment of her, Santuzza pours out the whole story of Lola's infidelity, and Alfio vows vengeance. They go off together, and while the stage remains empty the Intermezzo is played, which must be one of the best known pieces of music in existence. As it dies away, people come out of church, and Turiddu invites his friends to drink with him at his mother's wine-shop. Alfio joins them, and Turiddu asks him to drink, but he refuses. The women scent the coming tragedy, and carry off Lola, as Alfio issues his challenge to Turiddu; according to Sicilian custom, the two men embrace, and Turiddu bites his enemy's car. Alfio goes off to the place appointed for the duel. Turiddu seeks his mother and bids her farewell, asking her to watch over Santuzza if he should not return, and he, too, goes off. Santuzza rushes in and flings herself into Lucia's arms. and tho crowd comes back, seething with excitement. From the distance voices are heard, and a sudden cry that Turiddu is killed, and, as the two women fall fainting, the curtain is quickly lowered.
Bach's Choral Preludes
Played by Dr. W. G. Alcock
Relayed from St. Margaret's, Westminster
Jesus Christus, unser Heiland, der von uns
(Jesus Christ, our Saviour) (Canto fermo in Pedal)
Jesus Christus, Unser Heiland, der von uns
Valet will ich dir genes (I give thee now farewell) Valet will ich dir geben
Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier (Dearest Jesu, we are here)
Bachwas a magnificent organ player, the greatest organ player in the opinion of those who heard him that ever lived, and tliere has been found no reason to dispute that that opinion holds for all time. As a child lie was astonishing his elders, ae a young man he held his hearers spellbound with his genius for improvisation, and his organ compositions bear witness to his unapproached supremacy as a writer for the organ. The base upon which he built his art and developed his powers as organ composer and player was the German Choral, and of all his compositions for the organ the most consistently beautiful and successful are the Choral Preludes. He was writing these throughout his life. There are considerably over a hundred of them, those which Bach at the end of his life put together into five collections alone numbering ninety. The earliest of these date from before his Cothen days, and the last, the one with which this series is to conclude, Wenn wir in hochsten Nothein schi, was dedicated to his son-in-law by the blind and stricken genius on his deathbed.
Sport, speed on the road and in the air, and the departure of a giant liner on her maiden voyage, are the open-air thrills captured by the microphone and transmitted to listeners in one afternoon of record outside broadcasts today.
From Shelsley Walsh comes a running commentary on the Annual Open Hill-Climb for Racing and Sports Cars, where the speed kings struggle to cover a 1,000 yard course wit.h a. one in eight gradient in something like forty-two seconds.
Wimbledon comes next, where international tennis stars are halfway through the All-England Lawn Tennis championship.
At 3 o'clock you will hear the ceremony of the, departure of the new White Star motor vessel, Georgic, on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York : a farewell speech from the Lord Mayor of Liverpool on the bridge of the liner, and music by the ship's orchestra as she slips down the Mersey.
The scene changes to Hendon for the next relay, where the Royal Air Force is holding its ever-popular annual pageant. Stunt flights, mock battles, and the glittering pageant will be vividly described against a background, of roaring engines.
5.15 The Children's Hour
Children are invited to listen to the close of the R.A.F. Display at Hendon, where Squadron-Leader Helmore is giving a Running Commentary
Relayed from the State Opera House (Unter den Linden), Berlin
Dr. Mabel Brodie
National Baby Week has been hold in the first week in July, under the auspices of the National Baby Week Council, since 1917, the year of its foundation. Baby Week activities culminate in the annual Conference; held this year in the Guildhall, where the results of the Imperial and National competitions held by the Council will be announced, and national attention directed to the aspects of maternity and child welfare services not yet perfect.
Dr. Mabel Brodie, who is to give this morning's talk, is Health Officer for the state of Kedah, Federal Malay States, now home on leave.
Conductor, Sir DAN GODFREY
ION AULAY (Pianoforte)
From THE PAVILION, BOURNEMOUTH
WHEN Salammbo, Gustave Flau bert's story of Carthage, published in 1862, came into the hands] of Mussorgsky, he at once saw the possibilities of making an opera out of so congenial a subject and began work on it. He did not, however, get far with the music, and presently abandoned all thought of finishing it. What ho
- had already written was, however, used up in various ways ; for instance, this part of the music was transformed into a tone picture with a definite programme. The first title given to the work was The Eve of St. John on the bare Mountain, but Mussorgsky himself usually spoke of it as The Witches. The mountain referred to is said to be Monte Carmo in the Italian Alps, and that it is peculiar for its extreme bareness and lack of any sort of shrub-apparently a most appropriate place for a witches' Sabbath. The programme attached to the music concerns such an occasion. Unearthly voices are heard coming from beneath the ground, spirits of darkness appear. followed by Chernobog. the evil god. They hold Satanic revels, but when at dawn the village bell is heard in the distance, the dark spirits all (disappear and the music ends in tranquillity and deep peace.
Mr. OSBERT SITWELL V. Mr. W. S. MORRISON ,
M.P. : ' How Shall we Spend our Sundays ? '
THE English Sunday, riddled with inconsistencies, a day when cinemas may open and barbers may not, legacy of a Puritan past, is inflammable material for an encounter. Mr. Osbert Sitwell , poet and novelist, battles with Mr. W. S. Morrison , Conservative M.P. for Cirencester, who holds violent views on Sunday spending which he is liable to express with brilliant force.
THE B.B.C. ORCHESTRA
(Led by MARIE WILSON )
Conducted by ARTHUR CATTERALL
SINCE (the days of Bach and Handel, composers who have written works to bo played by a number of string instruments alone have done so deliberately, and have been careful to make the fact known in the title of the piece —even Mozart and Haydn did so-but before their day it was scarcely necessary, since orchestras were practically composed only of string players. True, both Bach and Handel frequently added oboes, bassoons, and trumpets, and, less often, several other instruments, but that was done with the idea mainly of adding volume and power to the strings, or of giving an individual character to solos, bpt with no notion of imparting richness and colour to the orchestration -a development in tone painting that had not yet been given its head.
The original corner stone of the string orchestra was the viola. On that instrument, the chief inheritor of the viol and its family, all the stringed instruments in use today are founded, as, indeed, their names imply. Yet, in point of fact, the viola took its place in the orchestra much later than the others, for the early combinations of strings were made up of violins and a bass (which meant the violoncello and its deeper octave) filled in as to the middle harmonies with organ or harpsichord. Gradually, however, the needs of a fuller music demanded a more sensitive machine and the st ring orchestra as we know it was developed and finally established. Yet, as a , consequenceof the absence of any but tho crudest notion of orchestral colour in the minds of composers of the eighteenth century—excluding Mozart, as one invariably docs in any sweeping statement of fact—praetically the whole music of that period is drawn of necessity in black and white, and as there are no tools better adapted to orchestral line and wash than the family of stringed instruments, it is not surprising that in the rich mine of music of the past a vein of eighteenth-century concerted string music of amazing value has been unearthed in recent years.
Sextet, Op. 70 (Souvenir de Florence)
1. Allegro con spirito; 2. Adagio cantabile e con moto ; 3. Allegretto moderato ; 4. Allegro vivace
THE technique of scoring with orchestral colour has developed slowly. A whole century, with Wagner intervening, lies between the achievements of Beethoven and Richard Strauss , and the best part of another between the deathless experiments of Berlioz and Ravel's silken diaphane. And with it all, to this day the string orchestra holds its own. The reason is clear.
The convention that the palette of orchestral tone is roughly divided into three sections—strings, wood wind, and brass— each functioning individually, was born lusty and is dying hard. This convention was practised by the majority of romantic composers of the nineteenth century, and it served them very well. One universally acknowledged axiom, however, governed all their operations, and out of it arose a second axiom of equal value. The first was that by skilfully spreading and spacing chords, colour variety could be achieved and controlled, and the second was that the string section is in this respect the only self-contained one. Moreover, it was quickly discovered that string colour is tho most satisfying and palls least of the three. That accounts for the sustained favour which the string orchestra has enjoyed without a break to modern times. Nearly all the symphonic composers havo made handsome gifts to the repertory of string orchestral music—one of the wealthiest of all the repertories. It would ho impossible to mention all even of the finest of the string orchestral works written during the last hundred years, hut those composers who will come readily to the mind in this connexion include Tchaikovsky, Brahms, Elgar, Dvorak and Crieg.
' TTAI'PY is the nation that has no
JCL history ' is a view of the past that most countries in the modern world might envy but few can hold. Whother we like it or not, the past is always with us, colouring the present and fashioning the future. In that sense, 'all history is contemporary history,' and for that reason many of the talks in the winter programme will have an historical basis, dwelling on the men and movements of the past whose influence is still active. This talk by Mr. H. C. Wood , Principal of Wooilbrook Birmingham, a well-known historian, is in the nature of an introduction to the series, and it is being specially relayed to the Listening Groups' leaders now assembled in their annual Summer School at Oxford.